This is a document formed between the client / employer and the professional. During any one project there may be several appointment documents for different professionals.
The practical guidance, published as a series of individual ‘parts’ by the Department for Communities and Local Government, on ways to comply with the functional requirements in the Building Regulations 2010. Some of the Approved Documents (notably Approved Document B (Fire Safety) and Approved Document L (Conservation of Fuel and Power), recognise that historic buildings may require alternative approaches to meet the requirements.
Architects Registration Board. The ARB administer the Architects Act of Parliament which protects the title Architect to ensure that the consumer is indeed employing the services of a professional architect. To be an architect you must be registered withthe ARB. Any person calling themselves an ‘Architect’ and not registered with the ARB is in breach of The Architects Act.
An Arboriculturist is a specialist consultant who can assess the health of trees and woodland who then provides a report to accompany a Planning Application and more often than not also advises on the safety of the existing trees. It is often necessary to employ the services of an Arboriculturist in rural areas to satisfy Planning Policy with relation to destruction of trees and associated habitats.
Archaeological Building Analysis
Systematic analytical process for historic buildings combining visual analysis and interpretation of the fabric (setting, uses, plan form, layout and construction, phasing of development, alterations, and so on), with supported annotated photographs and drawings, and measured survey data. It is often carried out as part of the preparation of a Conservation Plan for complex assets so as to gain understanding about their history, evolution and significance.
An approach to the study and recoding of historic buildings and above-ground remains that attempts to understand building evolution using archaeological techniques, in particular stratigraphic techniques. Early efforts relied on scholarship aimed at sorting the evidence according to a pre-established sequence of styles or periods. Modern approaches use both relative and absolute dating techniques (stratigraphic and radiometric) to record historical changes.
Article 4 Direction
A restriction of permitted development rights under Article 4 of the Town and Country Planning Act (General Permitted Development) Order 1995 (GPDO). Article 4 directions are imposed by a Local Authority where it deems the exercise of permitted development rights causes, or may cause, a specific local problem for the character or significance of an asset (usually a Conservation Area).
A naturally occurring, fibrous silicate mineral able to strongly resist heat and chemical damage. Used as a fire-retardant or insulator, and as a component in sheeting, tiles siding, roofing felts, shingles, plasters, cements and textured coatings, as well as for general heat and sound insulation. Serious illnesses (such as cancer and asbestosis) are caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibres.
Bill of Quantities
A document containing a numbered, itemised list of work items, and quantities of labour, materials, services and other sums required for a project. Used as the basis for tendering and cost management. On a large project it may be prepared by a cost manager/quantity surveyor. For a small project a non-quantitative schedule of works might be produced instead.
Descriptive term for any material, system or component that is permeable to water vapour and/or able to absorb and desorb moisture with changes in relative humidity.
A Building Contract is the agreement put in place between the employer and the builder. Generally, the building contract is administered by the Contract Administrator / Architect. It is important that the administrator of this contract is non biased to the client nor the builder as dictated by the terms of most recognised building contracts. There are different forms of Building Contract for different purposes and it is important that the appropriate contract is chosen for a particular project. The most popular of Contracts are provided by JCT (Joint Contracts Tribunal).
Typically referred to asThe Building Control Inspector, this has the responsibility to ensure through inspection of both information provided and work on site to ensure the plans and buildings meet the requirements of Building Regulations. This service attracts a fee for both plan inspection and site inspections.
Building Fabric Survey
Condition survey used to obtain a detailed, comprehensive assessment of fabric condition as a whole. Such surveys are undertaken at close quarters (from scaffolding or a mobile elevated platform), and need to be both descriptive and analytical, diagnosingdefects, and setting out the amount and scope of future conservation and repair work, with prioritised recommendations for maintenance and repair over specific time periods. Also known as a full or detailed condition survey, it is usually carried out by a chartered building surveyor or architect.
The Building Regulations 2010 is an act of Parliament. Building Regulations are minimum standards for design, construction and alterations to virtually every building type. Building Regulations completion certificates issued by Building Control are regularly searched as part ofthe process when performing a purchase of property. The Building Regulations are administered by Building Control.
The Construction (Design & Management) Regulations (CDM 2015) are the main set of regulations for managing the health, safety and welfare of construction projects. CDM applies to all building and construction work and includes new build, demolition, refurbishment, extensions, conversions, repair and maintenance.
C.I. L = Community Infrastructure Leve. The C.I.L is applied to new development and is the consequence of a National Policy which Local Planning Authorities administer. The C.I.L charge is generally a sum of money leveed against a specific development based on a square meter charge. The monies collect by the Local Authority are collated into a protected pot of money that is administered towards Local Infrastructure Projects such as significant highway improvement or improvements to the public realm and similar. The C.I.L can be proven not to apply to particular types of projects but this requires confirmation ideally through the pre-application planning process.
General term for any qualitative survey aiming to gather the information needed to understand the construction and condition of a heritage asset, and to identify how its significance is vulnerable to decay. Such surveys vary in scope and detail, and range from periodic or routine inspections, to buildings fabric surveys, structural survey (or structural appraisal), and further specialist investigations or diagnostics focused on particular features or elements of an asset.
A Conservation Area is a designated area within the Local Planning Authorities Policy Information that specifically protects the character and bill form of the local environment. Conservation Areas are sometimes designated as an Article 4 Conservation Area. An Article 4 Conservation Area carries significant weight with regard to specific requirements by the Local Planning Authority to either retain or reinstate heritage details. Both forms of Conservation Area restrict development and professional advice must be sought before any building works are undertaken.
Conservation Area Consent
This is another form of Planning Application that will usually be required to accompany a Planning Permission for any proposed building alterations within a Conservation Area. A Conservation Area consent does not necessarily require specific heritage based information however, it is advised in order to justify change within a Conservation Area that a more detailed pack of information is submitted to the Local Planning Authority. Typically this will apply to Market Town Centres and Villages of particular heritage quality.
A synthetic overview of a given heritage asset, which includes an appraisal of its heritage values, a summary of its significance and an initial assessment of the issues likely to affect its future management.
Funds set aside to cover any unexpected costs arising during the life of a project.
Inherited assets which people identify and value as a reflection and expression of their evolving knowledge, beliefs, and traditions, and of their understanding of the beliefs and traditions of others.
Buildings or other structures, such as boundary walls or gates, historically associated with the principal listed building in an entry on the statutory list, but generally ancillary to it.
Technique of dating historic wooden objects by determining the felling date of the trees from which they were created, using tree-ring growth patterns as revealed by core sampling.
A method for procuring construction services in which the contractor is responsible for design as well as construction.
The inclusion of an asset, at international, national or local level, in an inventory, list or register, in accordance with the criteria governing identification and protection. Designation is an indicator of the importance of the particular value(s) and significance of a place, and forms the basis of the statutory system of heritage protection un England, though not all designation is statutory and not all places of significance will meet current criteria for designation.
In architectural projects, a work stage consisting of design drawings, specifications, schedules of work, bills of quantities and any other information necessary for the work to be implemented. It follows the feasibility and design development stages, and precedes the tendering construction phases.
A legally imprecise term usually interpreted according to the Town and Country Planning Act 1990, Which defines it as the carrying out of building operations, engineering operations, mining operations, and other operations in, on, over and under land, or the making of any material change of use to any building or other land.
The measures adopted in planning law and practice that made ecclesiastical buildings of the five main Christian denominations in England, used for ecclesiastical purposes, exempt from Listed Building Consent. Provisions are currently set out in the Ecclesiastical Exemption (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (England) Order 2010.
When referring to an Ecologist within the context of building development this more often refers to Protected Species Surveys. National and Local Planning Policy supports the Wildlife Act and prevents the destruction of habitat that supports protected species. Typical protected species are: Bats, Newts and nesting Birds. Development can often be delayed in order to collect sufficient ecological data to support either the presence or the lack of protected species on a particular site. The Ecologist will also recommend processes and procedures to enable development which may include creation of habitat elsewhere.
An Energy Assessor is required to assist the architect in submitting technical information to Building Control to comply with the Building Regulations. In a Domestic circumstance this is usually fulfilled by a SAP Assessment and in commercial instances this is usually satisfied by a BriAm Assessment (both acronyms are nationally recognised as the standard assessment procedure for modelling energy).
In order to comply with Building Regulations Part L there are minimum standards for energy efficiency for any Building whether it is a new build or alterations to an existing building.
The material substance of which places are formed, including their geology, archaeological deposits structures and buildings, and flora. Fabric is seen as an important aspect of significance of an asset, and the major repository of some or all of its values.
A process for exploring the viability of a project and the options available. Such a study would include background research, condition survey, options appraisal and financial projections.
Fire Safety Engineering
Fire mitigation that uses alternative, less disruptive, strategies for meeting the requirements of the Building Regulations 2000 Approved Document B, so as to minimise the adverse effects of fire controls to buildings of special architectural or historic interest. They take into account factors such as fire probability, severity, resistance to fire-spread, and so on.
Fire Safety Risk Assessment Record
A statutory building management document that provides a record of fire hazards identified in the risk assessment and the actions that have been taken to reduce or remove them. It is prepared by the ‘responsible person’ for buildings that are subject to control under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.
Full Planning Application
A Planning Application is made under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990. A Planning permissionis technically a legal measure for changing the use of land. The Local Planning Authority control the use of land through this Act of Parliament. A Planning Application is the process used to decide whether proposed developments should be allowed or disallowed. A full Planning Application will technically include all necessary information in detail to provide the Planning Authority with sufficient evidence that the development can proceed in accordance with Planning Policy. When the full Planning Application is determined it is often issued with Planning Conditions. Planning Conditions are written generally in two designations: one are pre-commencement conditions and two are general conditions to be observed. Pre-commencement Conditions are required to be discharged before any building works start on site, if this is not undertaken there is a risk that your Planning Permission could be in jeopardy.
Harm, Substantial harm
Change for the worse, primarily referring to the effect of inappropriate intervention on the heritage values of a place.
Health and Safety
Health and Safety associated with building projects is managed under the Construction and Design Management Act of Parliament (CDM 2015 above). It is important to note that there are differences between residential and commercial projects. There are also differences between public and private clients. The onus of Health and Safety ultimately falls back to the employer / client to ensure that they have instigated the procedures throughout the project. For further information on Health and Safety please refer to the HSE Website and/or ask your architect or professional for further advice.
All types of historic building, monument, site, place, area or landscape positively identified as having a degree of significance meriting consideration in planning decisions (regardless of whether or not the asset fulfils existing designation criteria).
Householder Planning Application
This point is basically the same as a Full Planning Application, however it is a slightly simplified application for smaller alterations to a dwelling house.
A Listed Building is a building of cultural or social significance that has been given a grade listing through the Planning (Listed Building and Conservation Act 1990. The protection of Listed Buildings is taken very seriously and is one of the few areas of Planning Policy that attracts incarceration. Destruction of a Listed Building includes not just the external fabric but also the internal fabric and in some instances other buildings within the curtilage of that building. It is very important before any work that constitutes construction of fabric is undertaken, that the necessary Listed Building Consent has been undertaken.
Listed Building Application
A Listed Building Application is similar to a Planning Application and in some instances it is possible to use a Planning and Listed Building Applicationas one document. However, the designations are distinctly separate and listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990. The process for permission to alter a listed building is more stringent than that of a simple Planning Application and more detailed information on the building is required. Typically, an applicant is expected to produce extensive research into the building’s history to understand the buildings significance and to indicate the level of harm and any justification for that harm.
Local Occupancy is a condition applied to certain planning permissions that seeks to ensure that the property is available to local residences within the Parish or adjoining Parishes depending on the Local Planning Authorities specific policy. A Local Occupancy Condition can have a significant effect on the development of a property and needs to be carefully considered. The application of this can be advised through the pre-application planning process prior to any full planning application.
Lump Sum Contract
A contract in which a buyer agrees to pay a contractor a specified amount for completing a given programme of work. Used for larger planned packages of repair or maintenance work, such as repainting external joinery and rainwater goods. Also known as a fixed price contract.
Lump Sum Contract with Bill of Quantities
Lump sum (or fixed price) contract where the contractor has the complete package of information needed (drawings, specifications, schedulesof works and bill of quantities) to price and undertake the project. A ‘lump sum without bill of quantities’ is a contract based on drawings and specifications only, and is often used in smaller projects or where work cannot be precisely measured.
Measured survey, metric survey
A record of a heritage asset, made by direct or indirect measurement, aiming to produce a dimensionally accurate representation or representations. The metric data and their representation may vary in scope or form depending on the end use of the survey, the techniques used and degree or precision required, practical and technical considerations, timescale, and cost.
Portable, low-invasivity technique for assessing the condition of in-situ timber. It consists of a high-speed probe drill bit (either 1-mm or 3-mm diameter) inserted into timber at controlled pressure. The rate of penetration is recorded graphically, with sudden or significant changes in the speed of entry indicating decay or other discontinuities within the timber.
The systematic observation, recoding and evaluation of dynamic processes, in a selective fashion, either continuously or on a periodic basis, for as long as it necessary to capture all the important cycles, trends or permutations; used to track structural behaviour, characterize building environment, identify risks, record rates of decay, and so on.
The systematic observation, recording and evaluation of dynamic processes, in a selective fashion, either continuously or on a periodic basis, for as long as it is necessary to capture all the important cycles, trends or permutations; used to track structural behavior, characteristic building environment, identify risks, record rates of decay, and so on.
1. A Scheduled Ancient Monument or other designated monument.
2. Any building, sculpture, marker or memorial chiefly significant for its historical or communal association of values.
A sub-contractor hired directly by a main contractor. Tender documents may include the names of potential named sub-contractors, but evaluation and selection of the sub-contractors, but evaluation and selection of the sub-contractor is handled by the main contractor.
National Parks Authority
A National Park Authorityis a special termused in the United Kingdom for legal bodies charged with maintaining a National Parkof which as of December 2016 there are ten in England, three in Wales and two in Scotland. Typically, a National Park has its own Planning Policy which is specific to the Park and more often than not it is very restrictive and removes Permitted Development Rights.
An sub-contractor hired by a contractor, but nominated by the client or the client’s representative in the tender documents.
North Yorkshire Building Control Partnership
North Yorkshire Building Control Partnership (NYBCP) was the first Local Authority Building Control Partnership in the UK. They provide a flexible and modern Building Control service on behalf of Hambleton, Richmondshire, Ryedale, Scarborough and Selby Councils.
North York Moors National Park - Local council specifically covering the National Park area
Ordnance Survey Map (OS Map)
This is a prerequisite required by the Local Planning Authority to support a Planning Application. It is a map which shows all the roads, paths and site in full including the roadway from the site to the nearest public highway. These maps are produced by Ordnance Survey (OS) which is Great Britain’s National Mapping Agency. Stone and Associates order this data on your behalf which we then have to process into a CAD drawing. The data is typically licensed for one year only, however on request this period can be extended. Typically, the licence for this data is restricted for the use of Planning Applications only, therefore it would be a preach of Copyright to use this map data for any other material.
A digital photographic image that has been corrected for scaling errors due to tilt and depth displacement. Each pixel is individually scaled and shifted in order to produce an orthographic projection. It can be used as a scaleable, stand-alone rectified image, or imported into CAD and combined with photogrammetry, or manipulated in space using 3-D modelling or visualisation software.
A Party Wall is a wall common to two adjoining buildings or rooms. A Party Wall is protected by the Party Wall Act 1996, if your project involves a Party Wall or multiple Party Walls there is a process to be undertaken to permit your project to proceed. In most small scale developments Party Walls can be resolved with relative ease, however this is not always the case. If the Party Wall Act is applied in full further advice should be taken from suitably qualified professionals.
Certain types of work to unlisted domestic buildings, which are exempt from the need to seek planning permission (except where a local authority restricts permitted development rights; for example, with an Article 4 direction in a Conservation Area).
Survey technique in which precise measurements and representations are produced from two overlapping stereo-images (taken from slightly different positions). The traditional product is a scaled outline drawing (‘wire frame’). ‘Metric’ cameras that have little or no lens distortion, and contain a mechanism for ensuring film flatness, are used to acquire the images. Digital and analytical photogrammetric systems enable accurate drawings to be produced using CAD from very heavily tilted photographs; for example, a whole building façade captured from the street.
Planning Conditions are generally the result of a Planning Application. All types of Planning Application when determined can have Planning Conditions added. Pre- commencement conditions in particular will need to be discharged formally through a further application to the Local Planning Authority. A typical pre-commencement condition for example is to provide material samples for the Planning Officers to approve prior to commencement on site.
A Planning Application is accompanied by a fee payable to the Local Authority. This fee covers some of the administration costs by the Local Authority. Planning Fees vary from Application to Application depending on the size of the development and the type of Planning Application submitted. Prior to a Planning Application being submitted it is possible to acquire a few quote from the Local Planning Authority.
In contract management or tendering, the initial part of the tender document giving details of the works as a whole, and general conditions and requirements for their execution; for example, sub-contracting, management structure, documents, quality management, and so on. They include general cost items for the contractor such as plant, site staff, facilities, site services, and other items not included in the schedule of rates.
A form of survey aimed at providing an initial, broad overview of the construction, and condition of a building, structure or site. It is usually preliminary to a wider programme of survey and analysis, and is the starting point for understanding how significance is vulnerable. Normally carried out from ground level.
Local Authority Planning departments provide pre-applicationadvice on request. The pre-application process is an industry standard with regards to providing advice before entering into a detailed and an expensive process of applying for a full Planning Permission. Pre-application advice is often a reliable way to secure a planning outcome as expected rather than facing an uncertain outcome through planning. However, the Local Planning Authority cannot preempt the democratic decision making process or a particular outcome in the event that a formal Planning Application is made and the outcome is determined at Planning Committee. However, if positive Pre-Application advice has been given and the Planning Officers recommend approval, it is very often the case that a Planning Inspector will find against the Planning Committee at Appeal.
Prime cost contract
Contract in which a contractor is reimbursed at the end of a project for his cost outlay in materials, labour and plant, plus a fixed fee (or a percentage of the above-mentioned costs). Sometimes used where work has to be carried out urgently and the full scope is not known.
Professional Indemnity Insurance (PII)
Architectsare legally obliged to carry ProfessionalIndemnity Insuranceto a minimum value set by the ARB. Indemnity insurance an insurancepolicy designed to protect professionals, clients and businesses alike. If there is a fault with the design or a professional misjudgment that affects the outcome of a project Indemnity Insurance is designed to cover this eventuality over a prescribed period.
Quantity Surveyor (QS)
A Quantity Surveyor is usually required when a project value is in excess of £200k. This may vary depending on the type of project. A Quantity Surveyor aids the architect to manage the financial side of the project. A Quantity Surveyor has significant knowledge on the current pricing of material and labour and has a significant role within any building contract to manage the builder whilst on site. A Quantity Surveyor can also be vital at the outset of a project when setting and managing the clients budget.
Part Q - Planning
This is a method of securing a change of use of a barn to a dwelling by using a permitted development notice system. See Permitted Development above.
A clear, odourless radioactive gas produced by the decay of uranium, which is found in low concentrations in most soils, especially over granite and limestone bedrock. It produces radioactive dust in the air and increases the risk of lung cancer.
Photographic survey technique in which a single photograph is taken with the image plane of the camera approximately parallel to the principal plane of the object. Scale errors due to tilt, but not those due to relief, are optically corrected, and the image printed to scale. Unlike an Orthophotograph, rectified photographs are not scalable in multiple planes.
Royal Institute of British Architects
Scheduled Ancient Monument
A site, usually an archaeological, designated under the provisions of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979, and afforded statutory protection under the Act. The category includes buildings as well as below-ground sites, such as caves and excavations, some submarine structures and the remains if some vehicles, aircraft, and so on.
Scheduled Monument Consent (SMC)
Authorisation, obtained from the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, to carry out works to a Scheduled AncientMonument. Consent applications are handled by English Heritage and assessed on the basis of the impact that the proposed works would have upon the significance of the monument(s) concerned, as specified in Department policy. For some works (existing agricultural and gardening operations carried out lawfully in the same place in previous years) consent is not usually required.
Schedule of rates
A list of unit-prices for work items in a tender document.
Schedule of works
A concise list of items of work, used in conjunction with the drawings and the specifications, for pricing by the contractor. Schedules of works do not include quantities and are often used by smaller firms for smaller projects. They merely list the individual items of work to be carried out in a given location.
The sum if the cultural and natural heritage values that people associate as an asset.
Special areas of conservation (SACs)
Designated areas which have been given special protection under the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010. They provide increased protection to a variety of wild animals, plants and habitats in line with EU legislation to conserve biodiversity. They are also designated nationally as Sites of Special Scientific Interest.
Special protection Areas (SPAs)
Designated areas under the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010 and EC Habitats Directive, Identified as being of international importance for the breeding, feeding, wintering or migration of rare and vulnerable species of birds. They are also designated nationally as Sites of Special Scientific Interest.
Structural Engineer (S.E)
A Structural Engineer generally will provide advice and calculus required for the technical development of any building. Structural calculations are a prerequisite in most instances to comply with the Building Regulations. In most instances architects and designers are not covered by their Indemnity Insurance to provide structural design. A structural engineer will be involved with most projects from the early design stages through to completion.
A specialist condition survey to investigate structural condition and performance (for example, cracking bulging or movement). Provided in addition to building fabric surveys and undertaken by a qualified structural engineer with experience in working with historic buildings. Also referred to as a structural appraisal or structural assessment.
Property of a material relating to its ability to adsorb, store and release heat energy. Thick-walled traditional masonry and earth building will absorb and transmit heat slowly and store it effectively, owing to the buffering effects of mass, density. Specific heat capacity and conductivity.
Tree Preservation Order
An order made by a local planning authority (Town Country Planning Act 1971) to prohibit the cutting down, uprooting, topping, lopping or wilful damage/destruction of trees without the authority’s consent. Trees in Conservation Areas have additional protection as a result of Conservation Area designation.
Work stages refer to the RIBA Plan of Work. More information can be found at www.ribaplanofwork.com
Common domestic indigenous architecture, built with local materials according to local environmental and cultural contexts.
The above information is a collection from various sources including Heritage England